2.2. Standardized healthcare

Consumerism entails standardization and this participates in the reification of man as it disregards the diversity of human life. Regarding healthcare, this vision has serious repercussions.  This domain has thus played a critical role in the implementation and development of social engineering, in particular in the emergence of private-public partnerships.

Manufacturing a scare of epidemics

In the early 19th century, the smallpox vaccine had opened vistas of a financial Eldorado since now not just the sick, but the healthy could be turned into a source of profit. Yet it had many harmful effects, and data suggests that the disease had, like other major ones, largely abated due to improved hygienic conditions, while its preponderance increased among vaccinated populations just after they were. This was followed by Pasteur and Koch’s thesis that diseases are due external microbes. They thereby modernized the old European belief which goes back at least to the 14th century. However, just like the bacterial hypothesis for the plague has never been evidenced, and on the contrary there is strong ground to believe that it may have been due to a series of earthquakes, probably as a result of the impact of a comet with earth which released toxic gases[1] – causes of epidemics mentioned in early Indian medical treatises[2] – so are there serious flaws in their work. According to historian Horace Judson, the rabies vaccine “might have caused rather than prevented rabies”. The presence of microbes may be necessary for the onset of diseases, but this does not make them the primary, nor the unique or sufficient cause. Indeed if, as stipulated by Claude Bernard, “the constancy of the internal environment (milieu intérieur)”, namely the global equilibrium of body and mind, “is the condition of free, independent life” rather than the consequence of life, then disease consists in the disturbance of this constancy, and any disturbance of such a complex process must have multiple interrelated causes, including environmental, hygienic and dietary, as had been thought throughout the centuries, especially in China and India, before the mechanistic perspective pervaded medicine. In particular, health is not the absence of microbes, and thus killing microbes is not the solution. For instance, the tuberculosis bacillus, as well as many other supposedly dangerous microbes are present in most humans. This Koch had reluctantly accepted, while Pasteur seemingly recognised on his deathbed that Claude Bernard had been correct: “the microbe is nothing, the soil is everything.”[3]

Notwithstanding, the Pasteur-Koch ideology paved the way towards private-public partnerships. 19th century Europe saw some major outbreaks of diseases like cholera. Unfounded on proper evidence, and despite evidence to the contrary, especially as these had become endemic since the early modern period, that they were mainly due to “excessive dirt as a result of catastrophic living conditions”, they were alleged to be contagious microbial diseases imported from colonies – an ungrounded thesis advanced to this day,[4] obscuring the importance of “the biological terrain” for microbes to “thrive”.[5] The fear of epidemics imported from colonies led to “the development of international health as a systematic area of regulation and action”, and to the rise of an “[i]nternational [h]ealth [e]stablishment”.[6] The lead was taken by France, which initiated International sanitary conferences in 1851, while the epidemic thesis was diffused by newspapers and journals.

To be successful, their efforts would have to await 1910 when Paul Ehrlich gave new life to the Pasteur-Koch thesis, although his ‘magic bullets’ for syphilis, developed with funding from the Institute of Medical Research founded by Rockefeller in 1901, had severe harmful effects. Alongside, the latter, with the help of Carnegie, commissioned a school teacher, Abraham Flexner, to write a report on medical education. The aim was to put an end to the competing age-old holistic medicine and to establish a medicine based on laboratory research and patents by creating the illusion of a problem and thereby scaring people to implement a pre-planned solution.[7] The recommendations of this 1910 report, imposed by force by the authorities, when necessary by jailing dissident doctors, brought medical teaching under centralized control,[8] [9] and was instrumental in replacing the universal and time immemorial tradition of decentralised and individualised drug-making by apothecaries and doctors by standardisation – the same petrochemical drug for all, thereby stalling the growth of preventive nutrition and lifestyle-based medicine. Big Pharma was born and it provided an inexhaustible outlet for the oil industry, on which Rockefeller’s fortune was initially based. In May 1913, his foundation was established, and in June of that year, its International Health Commission. At the end of the war, the League of Nation’s Health Organization (LHNO) was founded, of which his foundation became a major funder in 1922.

The LNHO was succeeded by the World Health Organization in 1946.[10] In contrast to other international organization, from the outset it was “profoundly shaped” by private interests, with the Rockefeller Foundation “playing a crucial part behind the scenes”.[11]

Vaccines as the solution to epidemics

Its initial constitution includes the eradication of contagious epidemics as one of its goals – thus assumes the concept of contagion. This goal was further emphasized within five years and the International Sanitary Regulations (ISR) were signed. These regulations introduced the idea of vaccination certificates, and enabled local health authorities to require international travellers coming from infected areas failing “to produce a valid certificate of vaccination against” a certain number of diseases “to be so vaccinated or to be placed under surveillance” for the duration of the incubation period. Although it stipulates that a “person under surveillance shall not be isolated and shall be permitted to move about freely”, it allows “isolation” in the case of an infected vessel or aircraft”.[12]

1955: The Rockefeller Institute together with the Roosevelt Warm Springs Foundation and The National Foundation of Infantile Paralysis led “a PR campaign to turn polio into a major health crisis and promote the need for vaccines”. A scenario similar to that of smallpox unfolded: “by the time the vaccine began to be used on Americans the number of polio cases had declined to 28,985 with 1,043 deaths. Polio cases in England and Wales were also dropping precipitously, with no vaccine.” Rather cases began to rapidly increase “despite — or rather because of — the polio vaccine program” and as a result, many suffered from paralysis. However, the “Rockefeller-controlled pharmaceutical companies — … benefitted financially”.[13]

1969: The ISR’s dispositions were consolidated and became the International Health Regulations (IHR). Health authorities in an infected area were now allowed to “require a valid vaccination certificate from departing travellers,”[14] in the case of “a disease subject to the Regulations”.[15] The extension to all of the legalization of forced medication without consent, by restricting their basic freedoms, was now well on its way.

1979: The WHO endorsed the 1978 Report and Declaration of Alma-Ata, which next to laudable aims, includes “immunization against the major infectious diseases”.[16] But in the 1981 revision of the ISR, smallpox vaccination was discontinued, and only very few areas in the world qualified as having a “disease subject to the Regulations”. Hence, gradually vaccination fell into disuse, aided by a widespread distrust.

1997: The WHO Health Report reiterates its insistence on vaccination: one of its goals was “to enable the provision of sufficient high-quality affordable vaccines” and “ensure the long-term financial viability of immunization programmes.”[17] Follows details of the development of specific vaccines for all. Vaccines epitomize a standardization appropriate for profit-maximization, but not for a diverse humankind. In the twenty years between 1979 and 1997, this focus on vaccines was at the cost of the WHOs other commitments, which to this day remain unfulfilled: “achieving and maintaining universal access to basic education for all, basic health care for all, reproductive health care for all women, adequate food for all and safe water and sanitation for all”, to quote a 1997 UN human development report, according to which 40 billion dollars or less than 4 per cent of the combined wealth of the 225 richest people in the world would suffice to cover any “additional cost” involved.[18]

2000: The pharmaceutical industry became the most profitable, thereby overtaking armaments.[19] Its resilience was however mainly due to “drug revenue”. But patents are not eternal, and according to Bain and Company, it was “struggling to compensate” for resulting losses.[20] Hence the sale of vaccines needed to be artificially boosted.

That very same year, Bain founded its philanthropic arm, Bridgespan, while Bill Gates, who owes his success to Bain and Company, established the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation – since then one of Bain’s main clients,[21] it in turn funds Bridgespan.[22] Others have followed their lead. It is through these supposedly non-profit foundations that corporates, following on the footsteps of Carnegie, Ford and Rockefeller, now “shape the thinking of policymakers, attract social innovators, and exert influence to bring together the private sector, government, and civil society”.[23]

Vaccination was from the outset the focus of the Gates Foundation and even though, Bridgespan also targets other areas, its website takes the eradication of polio as its first example of the success of former philanthropy.[24]

Immediately following their foundation, also in 2000, the vaccine alliance, GAVI, was established by the Gates Foundation, which provided its major initial funding. Among its other founders can be found the UK, the Netherlands, and Norway overnments. Indeed it is a “unique public-private partnership … bring[ing] together key UN agencies, governments, the vaccine industry, private sector and civil society”.[25]

Public money is donated to GAVI by the various governments, which then buys stocks of vaccines from pharmaceutical firms, who, together with their other private associates – pharmaceutical, consulting and philanthropic firms recoup multifold their investments and donations. “Investing in global health organizations aimed at increasing access to vaccines created a 20-to-1 return in economic benefit”, as recognized by Bill Gates himself, namely $200 billion over a period of 20 years for the $10 billion invested. This he acknowledged to be his “best investment”.[26] A very clever transfer of the populations’ assets to a few individuals, but at the cost of many of the lives philanthropy claims to save. In 2007, the Gates Foundation joined the “Global Polio Eradication Initiative to help eliminate the disease through a mass immunization campaign … contributing nearly $3 billion”.[27]  In September 2020, the WHO recognized the “oral vaccine” as the cause of “a new polio outbreak in Sudan”.[28] In India, according to a 2018 study,[29] it has led to 491 000 cases of paralysis between 2000 and 2007. There is also much evidence to suggest that “the cause of infantile paralysis (polio) is not a virus”, but “pesticides such as DDT and heavy metals”.[30]

In fact a major issue with vaccines and drugs are their harmful consequences. Adverse drug reaction was responsible for about 106,000 deaths in the U.S. alone annually around the turn of the century, and in 2009 was the leading sixth cause of death worldwide,[31].[32] Evidence all too often indicate a rise in cases after mass vaccinations. Artificially boosting immunity may well be impairing natural immunity, leaving individuals susceptible to more diseases. There is some corroboration[33] [34] between massive post WW1 vaccination campaigns and the 1918 flu. However, vaccination is an Eldorado not just because it targets everyone, but thanks to the increase in health problems it generates, more drugs and vaccines can be developed to then deal with these and thus guarantees unlimited opportunities for profit.


  1. Lester, D. and D. Parker 2019. What Really Makes Uou Ill?
  2. https://www.ijournalhs.org/article.asp?issn=2542-6214%3Byear%3D2016%3Bvolume%3D9%3Bissue%3D1%3Bspage%3D20%3Bepage%3D26%3Baulast%3DSamal
  3. Ray, T. and U. Ray. On Science: Concepts, Cultures, and Limits. London: Routledge. 2020.
  4. Cueto, M., T. M. Brown, and E. Fee 2019. The World Health Organization: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Engelbrecht, T. and C. Köhnlein 2007. Trans.: Megan Chapelas, Danielle Egan. Virus Mania. Victoria: Trafford.
  6. Cueto, M., T. M. Brown, and E. Fee 2019. The World Health Organization: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  7. https://eraoflight.com/2019/04/03/john-rockefeller-created-big-pharma-and-destroyed-alternative-medicine/
  8. https://www.weblyf.com/2020/05/the-flexner-report-and-the-world-health-organization/
  9. https://www.cancertutor.com/flexner-report/
  10. https://www.jus.uio.no/english/services/library/treaties/03/3-01/world-health-organization.xml
  11. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003335061300396X
  12. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/85636/Official_record37_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  13. https://personalliberty.com/rockefellers-coopted-modern-medicine-used-polio-create-vaccine-mythology-profit/
  14. https://www.paho.org/en/documents/international-health-regulations-1969-0
  15. https://www.who.int/csr/ihr/ihr1969.pdf
  16. https://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf
  17. https://www.who.int/whr/1997/en/whr97_en.pdf
  18. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Report 1998. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 30.
  19. https://khn.org/morning-breakout/dr00004161/
  20. https://www.bain.com/insights/mergers-can-not-save-the-drug-industry/
  21. https://www.vault.com/company-profiles/management-strategy/bain-company
  22. https://www.gatesfoundation.org/How-We-Work/Quick-Links/Grants-Database/Grants/2019/09/OPP1216851
  23. https://www.bridgespan.org/insights/library/big-bets/unleashing-big-bets-for-social-change/reimagining-institutional-philanthropy
  24. https://www.bridgespan.org/insights/library/big-bets/unleashing-big-bets-for-social-change/reimagining-institutional-philanthropy
  25. https://www.gavi.org/history-gavi
  26. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/23/bill-gates-turns-10-billion-into-200-billion-worth-of-economic-benefit.html
  27. https://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/24/bill-gates-humanity-will-see-its-last-case-of-polio-this-year.html
  28. https://apnews.com/article/virus-outbreak-health-middle-east-africa-united-nations-619efb65b9eeec5650f011b960a152e9
  29. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30111741/
  30. Engelbrecht, T. and Köhnlein, C. Virus Mania. Translated by Megan Chapelas and Danielle Egan. Trafford: Victoria, Ca. 2007.
  31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/adverse-drug-reaction
  32. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-interactions-labeling/preventable-adverse-drug-reactions-focus-drug-interactions
  33. https://salmartingano.com/2020/05/the-1918-spanish-flu-only-the-vaccinated-died/
  34. https://freepress.org/article/did-vaccine-experiment-us-soldiers-cause-%E2%80%9Cspanish-flu%E2%80%9D